Introducing Ethereum and Solidity

Blockchain and cryptocurrency programming for beginners


To restore an account on a different node than it was created upon, first install the Mist browser ( and then locate the keystore folder. In a machine with Mist installed, this folder is usually located in the following directories: Mac: ~/Library/Ethereum/keystore • Linux: ~/.ethereum/keystore • Windows: %APPDATA%/Ethereum/keystore • Restoring an Ethereum account in Mist simply involves copying a text file containing a private key inside the keystore folder, and restarting Mist. If you have the entire keyfile as it was created in Mist, with a filename that begins with a UTC timestamp, you can drop that into the keystore folder and restart Mist. Your balances should load as soon as Mist is finished updating, sometimes sooner. If you only have your private key, simply drop it into a plaintext file, name it whatever you like, and place that in the keystore folder.


The Solidity Browser Compiler allows you to compile your Solidity smart contract to EVM bytecode, right in your browser.


Here are resources for developing distributed applications (Dapps) with Ethereum.


Blockchain explorers can be built by anybody who knows how to use the Ethereum protocol. Exploring the blockchain allows you to view the network dynamically, watching as transactions roll in. Explorers can also serve as references, enabling Ethereum users to look up any address or transaction hash, to view details and metadata about the address or the transaction. This can include checking the balance of an account. Below are a handful of blockchain explorers for Ethereum, and one for Ethereum Classic.


It's generally a good idea to test contracts on the testnet. In order to get faux-ether to use on the testnet, you'll need to connect to a faucet. Like a blockchain explorer, anyone can build a testnet faucet. As of this writing, there are several testnets and faucets. The Kovan testnet requires authentication.


You can think of gas as a metric indicating the number of steps the EVM will have to take to complete the instructions in the transaction. Each computational step in a Solidity smart contract will have a gas cost associated with it.


Finding help with your Ethereum project is easiest if you narrow channels by topic. Below are the Gitter channels where you'll find other developers willing to lend a hand.


Ethereum was designed to host and interact with distributed applications (dapps) whose front-ends are largely written in JavaScript. As a result, this library was created for JS developers who would like to write functionality in a more familiar language than Solidity.


Because ether costs money, it's crucial to test your contracts before deploying them to the main network. Remember to test your contracts on one of the testnet!


If you prefer to learn visually, check out these video tutorials.

Chapter: 1

Blockchain Won't Make Banks Any Nimbler

American Banker 2016

Technologies that will decentralize the world

YouTube 2016

Management in the 1980s

Harvard Business Review 1953

Merkle tree

Wikipedia 2016

Ethereum White Paper

Github 2014

Bitt Launches Barbados Dollar on the Blockchain

Coindesk 2016

Gresham's Law

Wikipedia 2016

Fat Protocols 2016

App-coins and the dawn of the decentralized business model

Coinbase Blog 2016

The Business Imperative Behind the Ethereum Vision.

Ethereum Blog 2015

Why Open Source misses the point of Free Software

Gnu Foundation 2016

5300 Wells Fargo Employees Fired Over 2 Million Phony Accounts 2016

How blockchain technology could integrate financial & physical supply chains and revolutionize small business finance

Daily Fintech 2016

Chapter: 2

Ethereum Yellow Paper

Dr. Gavin Wood, 2014

Why criminals can’t hide behind bitcoin

Science Magazine 2016

When transferring ether, who needs to be in sync with the blockchain

StackExchange 2016

Chapter: 3

Grace Hopper

Wikipedia 2016

Ethereum: A Secure Decentralised Generalised Transaction Ledger 2016

Chapter: 4

Revolutionary Money 2016

Counterfeit Money 2016

Complementary currency

Investopedia 2016

Internet browsers to be disabled on New York’s free WiFi kiosks

New York Times 2016

Rice’s Theorem

Wikipedia 2016

Chapter: 5

Legality of bitcoin by country


Programmable blockchains in context: Ethereum’s future

ConsenSys Media 2015

Shelling out: the Origins of Money

Nick Szabo 2002

Money and the Evolution of Banking

Armstrong Economics 2016

Chapter: 6

A Proof of Stake Design Philosophy

Vitalik Buterin 2016

Ethereum Yellow Paper

Dr. Gavin Wood 2016

How is mining difficulty calculated

Ethereum Community Forum 2016

Towards a 12 second block time

Ethereum Blog 2014

Modified Ghost Implementation (Ethereum White Paper)

Github 2016

Uncle Mining: an Ethereum protocol flaw

Bitsblog 2016

When will the difficulty bomb make mining impossible?

StackOverflow 2016

Merkling in Ethereum

Ethereum Blog 2015

Merkle Patricia Tree Specification

Ethereum Wiki 2016

Chapter: 7

The Ultra Secret: The Inside Story of Operation Ultra, Bletchley Park and Enigma. Orion Publishers, London

Winterbotham, F. W. 2000

Empirical Cryptoeconomics

How Society Will Be Transformed By Crypto Economics

Fedcoin: The Desirability Of A Government Cryptocurrency

MacroMainia 2015

Chapter: 8

No citations...

Chapter: 9

Introducing Ethereum and Solidity

Genesis 765

Chapter: 10

W3 history 2016

State of the Dapps

State of the Dapps 2016

Chapter: 11

The Uncanny Mind That Build Ethereum

Backchannel 2016



The Problem Of Censorship

Visions Part 1 The Value Of Blockchain Technology

Visions Part 2 The Problem Of Trust

Light Clients Proof Stake

Superrationality Daos

The Thsph Orange Paper Series

Swarm Gateways

Mauve Paper


New Ethereum Blog Post By Dr Gavin Wood

Floating fees and SPV clients

Introducing Casper Friendly Ghost

Ambients Applied to Ethereum

Understanding Serenity Part 1: Abstraction

Understanding Serenity Part 2: Casper

Blockchain Scalability Chain Fibers Redux


The Intuit 2020 Report

Intuit 2010

Federal Reserve Chair Janet Yellen

YouTube 2016